Where does chocolate come from? (part 2)
Continued form the last issue.
The first chocolate house was reputedly opened in London in 1657 by a Frenchman. Costing 10 to 15 shillings per pound, chocolate was considered a beverage for the elite class. Sixteenth-century Spanish historian Oviedonoted: "None but the rich and noble could afford to drink chocolatl as it was literally drinking money. Cocoa passed currency as money among all nations; thus a rabbit in Nicaragua sold for 10 cocoa nibs, and 100 of these seeds could buy a tolerably good slave."
Chocolate also appears to have been used as a medicinal remedy by leading physicians of the day. Christopher Ludwig Hoffmann's treatise; Potus Chocolate recommends chocolate for many diseases, citing it as a cure for Cardinal Richelieu's ills.
With the Industrial Revolution came the mass production of chocolate, spreading its popularity among the citizenry. Chocolate was introduced to the United States in 1765 when John Hanan brought cocoa beans from the West Indies into Dorchester, Massachusetts, to refine them with the help of Dr. James Baker. The first chocolate factory in the country was established there. Yet, chocolate wasn't really accepted by the American colonists until fishermen from Gloucester, Massachusetts, accepted cocoa beans as payment for cargo in tropical America. Where chocolate was mostly considered a beverage for centuries, and predominantly for men, it became recognised as an appropriate drink for children in the seventeenth century. It had many different additions: milk, wine, beer, sweeteners, and spices. Drinking chocolate was considered a very fashionable social event.
(Eating chocolate was introduced in 1674 in the form of rolls and cakes, served in the various chocolate Emporiums) ?.
In 1828 the Dutch made chocolate powder by squeezing most of the fat from finely ground cacao beans. the cocoa butter from the pressing was soon added to a powder-sugar mixture, and a new product, eating chocolate was born. In 1876, a Swiss firm added condensed milk to chocolate, producing the world’s first milk chocolate