Fermentation is the heart of the brewing process. Wort, the malt infusion, is brought together with yeast cells that break down the sugars in the wort. This produces carbon dioxide, ethanol and a series of flavourings. And something about aeration phase. That’s strange really: oxygen is pretty much taboo in brewing, because it accelerates oxidation and spoils the taste. Air is, however, necessary at the beginning of the fermentation process. This is usually a case of pumping oxygen into the wort, but there are important reasons for oxygenating at yeast-cell level instead. This is known as yeast preoxygenation. For centuries, brewing has been done in batch form: you do something in the first vat and, once the process is completed, you run it all on to the second vat, and so on. Of course, this method works well enough, but it forces you to set up very large installations, and it’s difficult to guarantee a constant quality. Through continuous fermentation it should be possible to tackle the brewing process as a single whole, in a sort of moving belt. That’s more compact, and much easier to control.